Science Behind Technology

Process selection criteria

Selection of the right process route for Full Pressing is based on several criteria, related to both the economics (CAPEX and OPEX analysis, products YIELDS) and the specificity of the products (CAKE and OIL).

The key market reason to select Hot Single stage full pressing is to produce, at lower operating cost, a high-quality cake, with high RUP (Rumen Undegradable Protein) content, especially suitable for cattle feeding. The RUP, or by-pass protein, are not digested by rumen bacteria and are, therefore, available for further digestion and absorption by the animal small intestine. It is of utmost importance for dairy cow milk productivity. 

Other selection criteria are:

Oil Yield: due to cooking, material to be pressed is soft and liposome membrane are easily broken, hence releasing high amount of oil. This is the reason for high oil yield. Compared to Hot Double Stage Full Pressing, oil yield will be slightly less.

Oil Value: du to cooking, some nutritional components of the oil may be affected or degraded, just like in a refining process, making the oil value just as good as any solvent extracted oil. Compared to Cold Single Stage Full Pressing, oil value will be lower.

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Cake PDI: PDI is affected by heat, therefore, the cooking step will reduce its value. Compared with Extrusion + Full Press, PDI will be lower.

OPEX Saving: due to cooking stage, the Hot Single Stage Full Pressing has a relatively high consumption of steam. It is however less energy demanding than Hot Double Stage Full Pressing, giving some OPEX savings based on steam and power consumption.

CAPEX Saving: compared to Hot Double Stage Full Pressing, the Hot Single Stage Full Pressing allows for CAPEX saving as far as process equipment is concerned. Moreover, the cost of installation is also lower because of its simpler design.

5large versus Hot Single Stage Full Pressing

Process configuration

The seed from storage may contain up to 2% foreign material. The purpose of the cleaning process is to remove as much of foreign material as possible. An optional weighing process can be foreseen to get an accurate inventory of the material being sent through the seed preparation process.

03 Schema Cold single Stage Full Pressing

Milling is aimed at reducing inlet raw material into smaller size particles. It is a necessary process step to increase the heat transfer rate in the subsequent Cooking process. Milling can be achieved in a hammer mill, or cracking rolls.

In some cases, the cracking rolls milling can be combined with dehulling system, generally aimed at increasing protein content on the press cake.

In addition to size reduction, milling can include flaking step to further improve heat transfer in the cooker and oil extraction in the press.

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Cooking is a thermal process which heats the inlet material to approximately 100ºC (212ºF) and reduces its moisture to about 3%.  It is aimed at turning hard and harsh cracks/flakes into soft and easy to squeeze material, and at same time, increase friction, thereby pressure, on the material inside the press resulting in oil extraction rate increase. DesmetBallestra offers full range of horizontal and vertical cookers design.

Full Pressing is the heart of the process. Properly prepared material is fed continuously into the screw press where cellular structure of the seed is severely distorted tearing open many of the cell walls. Most of the oil will be extracted while producing a discharge cake with both integrity of shape and porosity, ideal for downstream cake cooling. DesmetBallestra offers a full range of ROSEDOWNS screw presses for all kind of seeds, all capacities.

Cake cooling is requested to removing heat from the cake coming out from the press. It is achieved through convective and evaporative cooling via fully counter-current air flow through the cake layer. After the Cake Cooler, the cooled cake has a temperature within the range of 20 to 40°C (68 - 104ºF), and a moisture contains below 3%.

Oil clarification is a two-step process that separates solid matter from the oil removed during Pressing.  The first separation step is by screening and the second separation step is by leaf filter filtration. 

Desmet Ballestra is a world leader in separation of oils & fats from oilseeds, nuts and animal offal. This separation can take place by mechanical pressure in a screw press, by solvent extraction, or by a combination of screw press plus solvent extraction. In all cases, the key to the separation process is proper mechanical and thermal preparation of the material prior to separation of the oils & fats. Desmet Ballestra masters all technologies of preparation, screw pressing and solvent extraction to bring full solutions to industry.

A growing business trend is to return to pure screw press separation of oils & fats, often referred to as “full pressing”. Desmet Ballestra bases its full pressing technology on the world renown “Rosedowns” brand of screw presses. Rosedowns, founded in 1777 in Hull, England, has long been a leader in designing and manufacturing world-class screw presses, and being a trusted supplier of the replacement parts needed to maintain yields year-around.

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Market drivers determine which type of full pressing process to select. Desmet Ballestra offers the full array of process possibilities:

The global Desmet Ballestra process design and project execution structure working hand in hand with the Rosedown excellence in screw pressing provides a global full pressing solution with strong local support.

Please reach out to your local Desmet Ballestra office today to discuss your market opportunities and the full pressing solutions Desmet Ballestra has to offer.

Introduction

The crude oil from the solvent extraction process contains water soluble components, primarily comprised of phospholipids, which need to be removed from the oil to enable minimum precipitation and settling during oil transport and long term storage. The water degumming process involves adding water to the crude oil, hydrating the water soluble components, and then removing the majority of them via centrifugal separation. The light phase after centrifugal separation is the crude degummed oil, and the heavy phase after centrifugal separation is a combination of water, water soluble components and entrained oil, collectively referred to as “gums”. The crude degummed oil is dried and cooled before being sent to storage. The gums are pumped back onto the meal.

Purifine® phospholipase C enzyme (supplied by DSM) is added to the crude oil during the degumming operation to enhance oil yield. This enzyme selectively splits the phosphatidyl choline and phosphatidyl ethanolamine type phospholipids into a diglyceride and a phosphorus containing molecule. The diglyceride directly becomes a portion of the oil yield. The reduced phospholipid content to the centrifugal separator reduces the quantity of entrained oil with the gums. This dual impact increases oil yield in the range of 1-2% during degumming.

Advantages

The advantages of the Desmet Ballestra enzymatic water degumming process are as follows:

Maximized Yield
1-2% higher yield when compared to traditional water degumming
Majority of phospholipids converted to diglyceride oil
Less total gums results in less separator oil losses

Minimum Enzyme Consumption
Approximately 1 ppm enzyme per 6 ppm of phosphorus
Crude Oil Cooler to adjust temperature for maximum enzyme activity
High shear mixing for optimum enzyme/water distribution into the oil
2 hours reaction time via plug-flow, multi-compartment, stirred Enzyme Reactors
Crude Oil Heater to deactivate enzyme and optimise gums separation
Mass flow meters and auto-samplers to monitor performance

Higher Protein Meal
Reduced gums quantity reduces dilution of meal protein

Due to the inherent risks associated with solvent extraction, Desmet Ballestra has invested significantly
to protect your people, your capital investments and the environment.

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Desmet Ballestra’s Process Safety Management (PSM) program for Solvent Extraction Plants includes:

  • Hazardous Operations (HazOp) analysis conducted by its global experts for all standard solvent extraction plant process sections to minimize risk of fire and explosion
  • Layers of Protection Analysis (LOPA) conducted by its global experts for all standard solvent extraction plant process sections to minimize risk of fire and explosion
  • Determination of Safety Integrity Level (SIL) loops for most critical controls by its global experts to minimize risk of catastrophic fire and explosion
  • Automation Functional Descriptions (AFDs) developed by its global experts for all standard solvent extraction plant process sections integrating the HazOp, LOPA and SIL analysis to ensure that its plants are adequately instrumented and have proper automation programming to minimize the risk of fire and explosion
  • In-house automation team to ensure that the solvent extraction plant control system is programmed to match the AFD
  • In-house automation team to ensure that the solvent extraction plant control system is inspected via Factory Acceptance Testing (FAT) prior to implementation
  • Inclusion of separate, highly robust “Safety PLC” for processing safety critical process signals to minimize the risk of fire and explosion
  • Solvent extraction plants designed in full compliance with NFPA36 Solvent Extraction Plants, the globally recognized guide for solvent extraction plant safety
  • All pressure vessels in the solvent extraction plant designed to American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) standards and registered as per local requirements
  • Vessels designed using ANSYS FEA and Bentley Autopipe Mechanical software to ensure mechanical integrity and minimize risk of fire and explosion during unplanned maintenance
  • Pressure drops during unusual conditions are modelled on ASPEN HySys and ASPEN Shell & Tube software to minimize the risk of high operating pressure and release of solvent to atmosphereProcess Safety

 

Download the PDF Management (PSM) program for Solvent Extraction Plants

Introduction

The crude oil from the solvent extraction process contains water soluble components, primarily comprised of phospholipids, which need to be removed from the oil to enable minimum precipitation and settling during oil transport and long term storage. The water degumming process involves adding water to the crude oil, hydrating the water soluble components, and then removing the majority of them via centrifugal separation. The light phase after centrifugal separation is the crude degummed oil, and the heavy phase after centrifugal separation is a combination of water, water soluble components and entrained oil, collectively referred to as “gums”. The crude degummed oil is dried and cooled before being sent to storage. The gums are pumped back onto the meal.

Advantages

The advantages of the Desmet Ballestra water degumming process are as follows:

Simplistic
Surge tank to prevent brief degumming interruptions from stopping extraction
No oil heating or cooling prior to Degumming Separator
Utilizes same Oil Dryer as the solvent extraction distillation process
Utilizes condensate from extraction for hydration water source

Effective
Consistently produces degummed oil with less than 200 ppm phosphorus
Hydration Vessel has multiple internal agitated compartments to optimize hydration
Positive displacement pump minimizes disturbance of hydrated gums

High Uptime
Automated self-cleaning centrifuge minimizes break-overs and operator interface